(七十四)Android O Service启动流程梳理——startForegroundService

前言:之前梳理了startService和bindService,现在接着梳理下Android O比较有特点的startForegroundService。

  1. (六十四)Android O Service启动流程梳理——startService
  2. (六十五)Android O StartService的 anr timeout 流程分析
  3. (七十)Android O Service启动流程梳理——bindService

 

 

参考:https://blog.csdn.net/lylddinghffw/article/details/80366791

 

1.service启动简述

service启动分三种,比较简单的就是startService,Android O用于后台应用启动前台服务的startForegroundService和绑定服务的bindService。本篇继续梳理startForegroundService,startForegroundService使用需要注意的是Service启动后要在5s之内调用startForeground显示一个通知,不然就会anr。

 

2.startForegroundService流程梳理

2.1 ContextImpl

    @Override
    public ComponentName startForegroundService(Intent service) {
        warnIfCallingFromSystemProcess();
        return startServiceCommon(service, true, mUser);
    }

 

    private ComponentName startServiceCommon(Intent service, boolean requireForeground,
            UserHandle user) {
        try {
            validateServiceIntent(service);
            service.prepareToLeaveProcess(this);
            ComponentName cn = ActivityManager.getService().startService(
                mMainThread.getApplicationThread(), service, service.resolveTypeIfNeeded(
                            getContentResolver()), requireForeground,
                            getOpPackageName(), user.getIdentifier());
            if (cn != null) {
                if (cn.getPackageName().equals("!")) {
                    throw new SecurityException(
                            "Not allowed to start service " + service
                            + " without permission " + cn.getClassName());
                } else if (cn.getPackageName().equals("!!")) {
                    throw new SecurityException(
                            "Unable to start service " + service
                            + ": " + cn.getClassName());
                } else if (cn.getPackageName().equals("?")) {
                    throw new IllegalStateException(
                            "Not allowed to start service " + service + ": " + cn.getClassName());
                }
            }
            return cn;
        } catch (RemoteException e) {
            throw e.rethrowFromSystemServer();
        }
    }

对照下之前梳理的startService,发现只是requireForeground参数由false改为true表明需要置为前台Service,其他流程是一样的。注意关注下这个参数带来的变化。

    @Override
    public ComponentName startService(Intent service) {
        warnIfCallingFromSystemProcess();
        return startServiceCommon(service, false, mUser);
    }

那这里附一下startService的时序图,一样的流程就略过不赘述了。

 

2.2 AMS

    @Override
    public ComponentName startService(IApplicationThread caller, Intent service,
            String resolvedType, boolean requireForeground, String callingPackage, int userId)
            throws TransactionTooLargeException {
        enforceNotIsolatedCaller("startService");
        // Refuse possible leaked file descriptors
        if (service != null && service.hasFileDescriptors() == true) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("File descriptors passed in Intent");
        }

        if (callingPackage == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("callingPackage cannot be null");
        }

        if (DEBUG_SERVICE) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE,
                "*** startService: " + service + " type=" + resolvedType + " fg=" + requireForeground);
        synchronized(this) {
            final int callingPid = Binder.getCallingPid();
            final int callingUid = Binder.getCallingUid();
            final long origId = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
            ComponentName res;
            try {
                res = mServices.startServiceLocked(caller, service,
                        resolvedType, callingPid, callingUid,
                        requireForeground, callingPackage, userId);
            } finally {
                Binder.restoreCallingIdentity(origId);
            }
            return res;
        }
    }

可以看到AMS并没有对requireForeground进行特殊处理,只是接着往下传。

 

2.3 ActiveServices

    ComponentName startServiceLocked(IApplicationThread caller, Intent service, String resolvedType,
            int callingPid, int callingUid, boolean fgRequired, String callingPackage, final int userId)
            throws TransactionTooLargeException {
        if (DEBUG_DELAYED_STARTS) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "startService: " + service
                + " type=" + resolvedType + " args=" + service.getExtras());

        final boolean callerFg;
        if (caller != null) {
            final ProcessRecord callerApp = mAm.getRecordForAppLocked(caller);
            if (callerApp == null) {
                throw new SecurityException(
                        "Unable to find app for caller " + caller
                        + " (pid=" + callingPid
                        + ") when starting service " + service);
            }
            callerFg = callerApp.setSchedGroup != ProcessList.SCHED_GROUP_BACKGROUND;
        } else {
            callerFg = true;
        }

        ServiceLookupResult res =
            retrieveServiceLocked(service, resolvedType, callingPackage,
                    callingPid, callingUid, userId, true, callerFg, false);
        if (res == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (res.record == null) {
            return new ComponentName("!", res.permission != null
                    ? res.permission : "private to package");
        }

        ServiceRecord r = res.record;

        if (!mAm.mUserController.exists(r.userId)) {
            Slog.w(TAG, "Trying to start service with non-existent user! " + r.userId);
            return null;
        }

        // If this isn't a direct-to-foreground start, check our ability to kick off an
        // arbitrary service
        if (!r.startRequested && !fgRequired) {
            // Before going further -- if this app is not allowed to start services in the
            // background, then at this point we aren't going to let it period.
            final int allowed = mAm.getAppStartModeLocked(r.appInfo.uid, r.packageName,
                    r.appInfo.targetSdkVersion, callingPid, false, false);
            if (allowed != ActivityManager.APP_START_MODE_NORMAL) {
                Slog.w(TAG, "Background start not allowed: service "
                        + service + " to " + r.name.flattenToShortString()
                        + " from pid=" + callingPid + " uid=" + callingUid
                        + " pkg=" + callingPackage);
                if (allowed == ActivityManager.APP_START_MODE_DELAYED) {
                    // In this case we are silently disabling the app, to disrupt as
                    // little as possible existing apps.
                    return null;
                }
                // This app knows it is in the new model where this operation is not
                // allowed, so tell it what has happened.
                UidRecord uidRec = mAm.mActiveUids.get(r.appInfo.uid);
                return new ComponentName("?", "app is in background uid " + uidRec);
            }
        }

        NeededUriGrants neededGrants = mAm.checkGrantUriPermissionFromIntentLocked(
                callingUid, r.packageName, service, service.getFlags(), null, r.userId);

        // If permissions need a review before any of the app components can run,
        // we do not start the service and launch a review activity if the calling app
        // is in the foreground passing it a pending intent to start the service when
        // review is completed.
        if (mAm.mPermissionReviewRequired) {
            if (!requestStartTargetPermissionsReviewIfNeededLocked(r, callingPackage,
                    callingUid, service, callerFg, userId)) {
                return null;
            }
        }

        if (unscheduleServiceRestartLocked(r, callingUid, false)) {
            if (DEBUG_SERVICE) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "START SERVICE WHILE RESTART PENDING: " + r);
        }
        r.lastActivity = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
        r.startRequested = true;
        r.delayedStop = false;
        r.fgRequired = fgRequired;
        r.pendingStarts.add(new ServiceRecord.StartItem(r, false, r.makeNextStartId(),
                service, neededGrants, callingUid));

        final ServiceMap smap = getServiceMapLocked(r.userId);
        boolean addToStarting = false;
        if (!callerFg && !fgRequired && r.app == null
                && mAm.mUserController.hasStartedUserState(r.userId)) {
            ProcessRecord proc = mAm.getProcessRecordLocked(r.processName, r.appInfo.uid, false);
            if (proc == null || proc.curProcState > ActivityManager.PROCESS_STATE_RECEIVER) {
                // If this is not coming from a foreground caller, then we may want
                // to delay the start if there are already other background services
                // that are starting.  This is to avoid process start spam when lots
                // of applications are all handling things like connectivity broadcasts.
                // We only do this for cached processes, because otherwise an application
                // can have assumptions about calling startService() for a service to run
                // in its own process, and for that process to not be killed before the
                // service is started.  This is especially the case for receivers, which
                // may start a service in onReceive() to do some additional work and have
                // initialized some global state as part of that.
                if (DEBUG_DELAYED_SERVICE) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Potential start delay of "
                        + r + " in " + proc);
                if (r.delayed) {
                    // This service is already scheduled for a delayed start; just leave
                    // it still waiting.
                    if (DEBUG_DELAYED_STARTS) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Continuing to delay: " + r);
                    return r.name;
                }
                if (smap.mStartingBackground.size() >= mMaxStartingBackground) {
                    // Something else is starting, delay!
                    Slog.i(TAG_SERVICE, "Delaying start of: " + r);
                    smap.mDelayedStartList.add(r);
                    r.delayed = true;
                    return r.name;
                }
                if (DEBUG_DELAYED_STARTS) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Not delaying: " + r);
                addToStarting = true;
            } else if (proc.curProcState >= ActivityManager.PROCESS_STATE_SERVICE) {
                // We slightly loosen when we will enqueue this new service as a background
                // starting service we are waiting for, to also include processes that are
                // currently running other services or receivers.
                addToStarting = true;
                if (DEBUG_DELAYED_STARTS) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE,
                        "Not delaying, but counting as bg: " + r);
            } else if (DEBUG_DELAYED_STARTS) {
                StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(128);
                sb.append("Not potential delay (state=").append(proc.curProcState)
                        .append(' ').append(proc.adjType);
                String reason = proc.makeAdjReason();
                if (reason != null) {
                    sb.append(' ');
                    sb.append(reason);
                }
                sb.append("): ");
                sb.append(r.toString());
                Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, sb.toString());
            }
        } else if (DEBUG_DELAYED_STARTS) {
            if (callerFg || fgRequired) {
                Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Not potential delay (callerFg=" + callerFg + " uid="
                        + callingUid + " pid=" + callingPid + " fgRequired=" + fgRequired + "): " + r);
            } else if (r.app != null) {
                Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Not potential delay (cur app=" + r.app + "): " + r);
            } else {
                Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE,
                        "Not potential delay (user " + r.userId + " not started): " + r);
            }
        }

        ComponentName cmp = startServiceInnerLocked(smap, service, r, callerFg, addToStarting);
        return cmp;
    }

这里对于fgRequired为true的情况其实也只是赋值了一下

r.fgRequired = fgRequired;

后面流程和startService的onCreate一样的,没啥好重复说的,直到流程到了onStartCommand有点不一样了。

onStartCommand的开始是

   private final void sendServiceArgsLocked(ServiceRecord r, boolean execInFg,
            boolean oomAdjusted) throws TransactionTooLargeException {
        final int N = r.pendingStarts.size();
        if (N == 0) {
            return;
        }

        ArrayList<ServiceStartArgs> args = new ArrayList<>();

        while (r.pendingStarts.size() > 0) {
            ServiceRecord.StartItem si = r.pendingStarts.remove(0);
            if (DEBUG_SERVICE) {
                Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Sending arguments to: "
                        + r + " " + r.intent + " args=" + si.intent);
            }
            if (si.intent == null && N > 1) {
                // If somehow we got a dummy null intent in the middle,
                // then skip it.  DO NOT skip a null intent when it is
                // the only one in the list -- this is to support the
                // onStartCommand(null) case.
                continue;
            }
            si.deliveredTime = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
            r.deliveredStarts.add(si);
            si.deliveryCount++;
            if (si.neededGrants != null) {
                mAm.grantUriPermissionUncheckedFromIntentLocked(si.neededGrants,
                        si.getUriPermissionsLocked());
            }
            mAm.grantEphemeralAccessLocked(r.userId, si.intent,
                    r.appInfo.uid, UserHandle.getAppId(si.callingId));
            bumpServiceExecutingLocked(r, execInFg, "start");
            if (!oomAdjusted) {
                oomAdjusted = true;
                mAm.updateOomAdjLocked(r.app, true);
            }
            if (r.fgRequired && !r.fgWaiting) {
                if (!r.isForeground) {
                    if (DEBUG_BACKGROUND_CHECK) {
                        Slog.i(TAG, "Launched service must call startForeground() within timeout: " + r);
                    }
                    scheduleServiceForegroundTransitionTimeoutLocked(r);
                } else {
                    if (DEBUG_BACKGROUND_CHECK) {
                        Slog.i(TAG, "Service already foreground; no new timeout: " + r);
                    }
                    r.fgRequired = false;
                }
            }
            int flags = 0;
            if (si.deliveryCount > 1) {
                flags |= Service.START_FLAG_RETRY;
            }
            if (si.doneExecutingCount > 0) {
                flags |= Service.START_FLAG_REDELIVERY;
            }
            args.add(new ServiceStartArgs(si.taskRemoved, si.id, flags, si.intent));
        }

        ParceledListSlice<ServiceStartArgs> slice = new ParceledListSlice<>(args);
        slice.setInlineCountLimit(4);
        Exception caughtException = null;
        try {
            r.app.thread.scheduleServiceArgs(r, slice);
        } catch (TransactionTooLargeException e) {
            if (DEBUG_SERVICE) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Transaction too large for " + args.size()
                    + " args, first: " + args.get(0).args);
            Slog.w(TAG, "Failed delivering service starts", e);
            caughtException = e;
        } catch (RemoteException e) {
            // Remote process gone...  we'll let the normal cleanup take care of this.
            if (DEBUG_SERVICE) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Crashed while sending args: " + r);
            Slog.w(TAG, "Failed delivering service starts", e);
            caughtException = e;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Slog.w(TAG, "Unexpected exception", e);
            caughtException = e;
        }

        if (caughtException != null) {
            // Keep nesting count correct
            final boolean inDestroying = mDestroyingServices.contains(r);
            for (int i = 0; i < args.size(); i++) {
                serviceDoneExecutingLocked(r, inDestroying, inDestroying);
            }
            if (caughtException instanceof TransactionTooLargeException) {
                throw (TransactionTooLargeException)caughtException;
            }
        }
    }

这里面有下面一句比较关键

            if (r.fgRequired && !r.fgWaiting) {
                if (!r.isForeground) {
                    if (DEBUG_BACKGROUND_CHECK) {
                        Slog.i(TAG, "Launched service must call startForeground() within timeout: " + r);
                    }
                    scheduleServiceForegroundTransitionTimeoutLocked(r);
                } else {
                    if (DEBUG_BACKGROUND_CHECK) {
                        Slog.i(TAG, "Service already foreground; no new timeout: " + r);
                    }
                    r.fgRequired = false;
                }
            }
    void scheduleServiceForegroundTransitionTimeoutLocked(ServiceRecord r) {
        if (r.app.executingServices.size() == 0 || r.app.thread == null) {
            return;
        }
        Message msg = mAm.mHandler.obtainMessage(
                ActivityManagerService.SERVICE_FOREGROUND_TIMEOUT_MSG);
        msg.obj = r;
        r.fgWaiting = true;
        mAm.mHandler.sendMessageDelayed(msg, SERVICE_START_FOREGROUND_TIMEOUT);
    }

这里表示在onStartCommand的流程开始时会设置一个5s的anr timeout,超过5s就会anr并且停止Service。

    // How long the startForegroundService() grace period is to get around to
    // calling startForeground() before we ANR + stop it.
    static final int SERVICE_START_FOREGROUND_TIMEOUT = 5*1000;

也附带看下AMS是怎么处理这个消息的:

    final class MainHandler extends Handler {
        public MainHandler(Looper looper) {
            super(looper, null, true);
        }

        @Override
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            switch (msg.what) {
            case UPDATE_CONFIGURATION_MSG: {
                final ContentResolver resolver = mContext.getContentResolver();
                Settings.System.putConfigurationForUser(resolver, (Configuration) msg.obj,
                        msg.arg1);
            } break;
            case GC_BACKGROUND_PROCESSES_MSG: {
                synchronized (ActivityManagerService.this) {
                    performAppGcsIfAppropriateLocked();
                }
            } break;
            case SERVICE_TIMEOUT_MSG: {
                mServices.serviceTimeout((ProcessRecord)msg.obj);
            } break;
            case SERVICE_FOREGROUND_TIMEOUT_MSG: {
                mServices.serviceForegroundTimeout((ServiceRecord)msg.obj);
            } break;

还是扔回来调用ActiveServices来处理。

    void serviceForegroundTimeout(ServiceRecord r) {
        ProcessRecord app;
        synchronized (mAm) {
            if (!r.fgRequired || r.destroying) {
                return;
            }

            if (DEBUG_BACKGROUND_CHECK) {
                Slog.i(TAG, "Service foreground-required timeout for " + r);
            }
            app = r.app;
            r.fgWaiting = false;
            stopServiceLocked(r);
        }

        if (app != null) {
            mAm.mAppErrors.appNotResponding(app, null, null, false,
                    "Context.startForegroundService() did not then call Service.startForeground()");
        }
    }

直接停止Service并且通过AMS使应用 anr,提示“Context.startForegroundService() did not then call Service.startForeground()”。

 

3. startForeground流程梳理

 

3.1 Service

    /**
     * If your service is started (running through {@link Context#startService(Intent)}), then
     * also make this service run in the foreground, supplying the ongoing
     * notification to be shown to the user while in this state.
     * By default started services are background, meaning that their process won't be given
     * foreground CPU scheduling (unless something else in that process is foreground) and,
     * if the system needs to kill them to reclaim more memory (such as to display a large page in a
     * web browser), they can be killed without too much harm.  You use
     * {@link #startForeground} if killing your service would be disruptive to the user, such as
     * if your service is performing background music playback, so the user
     * would notice if their music stopped playing.
     *
     * <p>Note that calling this method does <em>not</em> put the service in the started state
     * itself, even though the name sounds like it.  You must always call
     * {@link #startService(Intent)} first to tell the system it should keep the service running,
     * and then use this method to tell it to keep it running harder.</p>
     *
     * @param id The identifier for this notification as per
     * {@link NotificationManager#notify(int, Notification)
     * NotificationManager.notify(int, Notification)}; must not be 0.
     * @param notification The Notification to be displayed.
     * 
     * @see #stopForeground(boolean)
     */
    public final void startForeground(int id, Notification notification) {
        try {
            mActivityManager.setServiceForeground(
                    new ComponentName(this, mClassName), mToken, id,
                    notification, 0);
        } catch (RemoteException ex) {
        }
    }

 

3.2 AMS

    @Override
    public void setServiceForeground(ComponentName className, IBinder token,
            int id, Notification notification, int flags) {
        synchronized(this) {
            mServices.setServiceForegroundLocked(className, token, id, notification, flags);
        }
    }

 

3.3 ActiveServices

    public void setServiceForegroundLocked(ComponentName className, IBinder token,
            int id, Notification notification, int flags) {
        final int userId = UserHandle.getCallingUserId();
        final long origId = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
        try {
            ServiceRecord r = findServiceLocked(className, token, userId);
            if (r != null) {
                setServiceForegroundInnerLocked(r, id, notification, flags);
            }
        } finally {
            Binder.restoreCallingIdentity(origId);
        }
    }

 

   private void setServiceForegroundInnerLocked(ServiceRecord r, int id,
            Notification notification, int flags) {
        if (id != 0) {
            if (notification == null) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("null notification");
            }
            // Instant apps need permission to create foreground services.
            if (r.appInfo.isInstantApp()) {
                final int mode = mAm.mAppOpsService.checkOperation(
                        AppOpsManager.OP_INSTANT_APP_START_FOREGROUND,
                        r.appInfo.uid,
                        r.appInfo.packageName);
                switch (mode) {
                    case AppOpsManager.MODE_ALLOWED:
                        break;
                    case AppOpsManager.MODE_IGNORED:
                        Slog.w(TAG, "Instant app " + r.appInfo.packageName
                                + " does not have permission to create foreground services"
                                + ", ignoring.");
                        return;
                    case AppOpsManager.MODE_ERRORED:
                        throw new SecurityException("Instant app " + r.appInfo.packageName
                                + " does not have permission to create foreground services");
                    default:
                        try {
                            if (AppGlobals.getPackageManager().checkPermission(
                                    android.Manifest.permission.INSTANT_APP_FOREGROUND_SERVICE,
                                    r.appInfo.packageName, UserHandle.getUserId(r.appInfo.uid))
                                            != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
                                throw new SecurityException("Instant app " + r.appInfo.packageName
                                        + " does not have permission to create foreground"
                                        + "services");
                            }
                        } catch (RemoteException e) {
                            throw new SecurityException("Failed to check instant app permission." ,
                                    e);
                        }
                }
            }
            if (r.fgRequired) {
                if (DEBUG_SERVICE || DEBUG_BACKGROUND_CHECK) {
                    Slog.i(TAG, "Service called startForeground() as required: " + r);
                }
                r.fgRequired = false;
                r.fgWaiting = false;
                mAm.mHandler.removeMessages(
                        ActivityManagerService.SERVICE_FOREGROUND_TIMEOUT_MSG, r);
            }
            if (r.foregroundId != id) {
                cancelForegroundNotificationLocked(r);
                r.foregroundId = id;
            }
            notification.flags |= Notification.FLAG_FOREGROUND_SERVICE;
            r.foregroundNoti = notification;
            if (!r.isForeground) {
                final ServiceMap smap = getServiceMapLocked(r.userId);
                if (smap != null) {
                    ActiveForegroundApp active = smap.mActiveForegroundApps.get(r.packageName);
                    if (active == null) {
                        active = new ActiveForegroundApp();
                        active.mPackageName = r.packageName;
                        active.mUid = r.appInfo.uid;
                        active.mShownWhileScreenOn = mScreenOn;
                        if (r.app != null) {
                            active.mAppOnTop = active.mShownWhileTop =
                                    r.app.uidRecord.curProcState
                                            <= ActivityManager.PROCESS_STATE_TOP;
                        }
                        active.mStartTime = active.mStartVisibleTime
                                = SystemClock.elapsedRealtime();
                        smap.mActiveForegroundApps.put(r.packageName, active);
                        requestUpdateActiveForegroundAppsLocked(smap, 0);
                    }
                    active.mNumActive++;
                }
                r.isForeground = true;
            }
            r.postNotification();
            if (r.app != null) {
                updateServiceForegroundLocked(r.app, true);
            }
            getServiceMapLocked(r.userId).ensureNotStartingBackgroundLocked(r);
            mAm.notifyPackageUse(r.serviceInfo.packageName,
                                 PackageManager.NOTIFY_PACKAGE_USE_FOREGROUND_SERVICE);
        } else {
            if (r.isForeground) {
                final ServiceMap smap = getServiceMapLocked(r.userId);
                if (smap != null) {
                    decActiveForegroundAppLocked(smap, r);
                }
                r.isForeground = false;
                if (r.app != null) {
                    mAm.updateLruProcessLocked(r.app, false, null);
                    updateServiceForegroundLocked(r.app, true);
                }
            }
            if ((flags & Service.STOP_FOREGROUND_REMOVE) != 0) {
                cancelForegroundNotificationLocked(r);
                r.foregroundId = 0;
                r.foregroundNoti = null;
            } else if (r.appInfo.targetSdkVersion >= Build.VERSION_CODES.LOLLIPOP) {
                r.stripForegroundServiceFlagFromNotification();
                if ((flags & Service.STOP_FOREGROUND_DETACH) != 0) {
                    r.foregroundId = 0;
                    r.foregroundNoti = null;
                }
            }
        }
    }

setServiceForegroundInnerLocked这个方法很关键,关键代码分如下几部分梳理:

1)首先Service创建的notification id不能是0并且notification不能是null,并且Android O 如果创建通知的话还要设置channel的。

        if (id != 0) {
            if (notification == null) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("null notification");
            }

 

2)设置r.fgRequired为false,表明已经设置Service为foreground了,不需要了。并且移除了之前发给AMS的SERVICE_FOREGROUND_TIMEOUT_MSG,这样就不会anr了。但是这句话要在发出消息的5s之内调用到,否则还是会anr。

由于消息是在onStartCommand流程开始时发出的,如果我们的Service在onCreate就开始调用startForeground,时限也许会长于5s。但由于一个是AMS的流程,一个是APP的流程,是异步的,长也长不了多少,不是等onCreate执行完再发的。

            if (r.fgRequired) {
                if (DEBUG_SERVICE || DEBUG_BACKGROUND_CHECK) {
                    Slog.i(TAG, "Service called startForeground() as required: " + r);
                }
                r.fgRequired = false;
                r.fgWaiting = false;
                mAm.mHandler.removeMessages(
                        ActivityManagerService.SERVICE_FOREGROUND_TIMEOUT_MSG, r);
            }

3)取消通知,但会检查应用的其他前台Service是否有相同的notification id,如果一样,则不取消。

            if (r.foregroundId != id) {
                cancelForegroundNotificationLocked(r);
                r.foregroundId = id;
            }
    private void cancelForegroundNotificationLocked(ServiceRecord r) {
        if (r.foregroundId != 0) {
            // First check to see if this app has any other active foreground services
            // with the same notification ID.  If so, we shouldn't actually cancel it,
            // because that would wipe away the notification that still needs to be shown
            // due the other service.
            ServiceMap sm = getServiceMapLocked(r.userId);
            if (sm != null) {
                for (int i = sm.mServicesByName.size()-1; i >= 0; i--) {
                    ServiceRecord other = sm.mServicesByName.valueAt(i);
                    if (other != r && other.foregroundId == r.foregroundId
                            && other.packageName.equals(r.packageName)) {
                        // Found one!  Abort the cancel.
                        return;
                    }
                }
            }
            r.cancelNotification();
        }
    }

4)将Service设为前台Service

            notification.flags |= Notification.FLAG_FOREGROUND_SERVICE;
            r.foregroundNoti = notification;
            if (!r.isForeground) {
                final ServiceMap smap = getServiceMapLocked(r.userId);
                if (smap != null) {
                    ActiveForegroundApp active = smap.mActiveForegroundApps.get(r.packageName);
                    if (active == null) {
                        active = new ActiveForegroundApp();
                        active.mPackageName = r.packageName;
                        active.mUid = r.appInfo.uid;
                        active.mShownWhileScreenOn = mScreenOn;
                        if (r.app != null) {
                            active.mAppOnTop = active.mShownWhileTop =
                                    r.app.uidRecord.curProcState
                                            <= ActivityManager.PROCESS_STATE_TOP;
                        }
                        active.mStartTime = active.mStartVisibleTime
                                = SystemClock.elapsedRealtime();
                        smap.mActiveForegroundApps.put(r.packageName, active);
                        requestUpdateActiveForegroundAppsLocked(smap, 0);
                    }
                    active.mNumActive++;
                }
                r.isForeground = true;
            }

 

4. Service “Context.startForegroundService() did not then call Service.startForeground()” anr原因

结合之前2和3对startForegroundService和startForeground的分析,可以很清楚的判断出Service anr原因:

Service没有在AMS SERVICE_FOREGROUND_TIMEOUT_MSG发出5s内将其移除,简单地对应于应用描述就是调用startForegroundService后5s内没有及时在Service内调用startForeground。(5s在这的描述是不精确的,但差不了多少,startForeground建议在Service onCreate一开始就调用,也许能争取点时间)

 

5. Service “Context.startForegroundService() did not then call Service.startForeground()” crash原因

之前都梳理的anr,其实Android O这边还埋了个crash的坑。如果5s之内没有及时调用startForeground,然后Service destroy了,比如stopService,那Android O很人性化地不让Service anr了,让Service crash。

    private final void bringDownServiceLocked(ServiceRecord r) {
        //Slog.i(TAG, "Bring down service:");
        //r.dump("  ");

        // Report to all of the connections that the service is no longer
        // available.
        for (int conni=r.connections.size()-1; conni>=0; conni--) {
            ArrayList<ConnectionRecord> c = r.connections.valueAt(conni);
            for (int i=0; i<c.size(); i++) {
                ConnectionRecord cr = c.get(i);
                // There is still a connection to the service that is
                // being brought down.  Mark it as dead.
                cr.serviceDead = true;
                try {
                    cr.conn.connected(r.name, null, true);
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    Slog.w(TAG, "Failure disconnecting service " + r.name +
                          " to connection " + c.get(i).conn.asBinder() +
                          " (in " + c.get(i).binding.client.processName + ")", e);
                }
            }
        }

        // Tell the service that it has been unbound.
        if (r.app != null && r.app.thread != null) {
            for (int i=r.bindings.size()-1; i>=0; i--) {
                IntentBindRecord ibr = r.bindings.valueAt(i);
                if (DEBUG_SERVICE) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Bringing down binding " + ibr
                        + ": hasBound=" + ibr.hasBound);
                if (ibr.hasBound) {
                    try {
                        bumpServiceExecutingLocked(r, false, "bring down unbind");
                        mAm.updateOomAdjLocked(r.app, true);
                        ibr.hasBound = false;
                        ibr.requested = false;
                        r.app.thread.scheduleUnbindService(r,
                                ibr.intent.getIntent());
                    } catch (Exception e) {
                        Slog.w(TAG, "Exception when unbinding service "
                                + r.shortName, e);
                        serviceProcessGoneLocked(r);
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        // Check to see if the service had been started as foreground, but being
        // brought down before actually showing a notification.  That is not allowed.
        if (r.fgRequired) {
            Slog.w(TAG_SERVICE, "Bringing down service while still waiting for start foreground: "
                    + r);
            r.fgRequired = false;
            r.fgWaiting = false;
            mAm.mHandler.removeMessages(
                    ActivityManagerService.SERVICE_FOREGROUND_TIMEOUT_MSG, r);
            if (r.app != null) {
                Message msg = mAm.mHandler.obtainMessage(
                        ActivityManagerService.SERVICE_FOREGROUND_CRASH_MSG);
                msg.obj = r.app;
                mAm.mHandler.sendMessage(msg);
            }
        }

        if (DEBUG_SERVICE) {
            RuntimeException here = new RuntimeException();
            here.fillInStackTrace();
            Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Bringing down " + r + " " + r.intent, here);
        }
        r.destroyTime = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
        if (LOG_SERVICE_START_STOP) {
            EventLogTags.writeAmDestroyService(
                    r.userId, System.identityHashCode(r), (r.app != null) ? r.app.pid : -1);
        }

        final ServiceMap smap = getServiceMapLocked(r.userId);
        ServiceRecord found = smap.mServicesByName.remove(r.name);

        // Note when this method is called by bringUpServiceLocked(), the service is not found
        // in mServicesByName and found will be null.
        if (found != null && found != r) {
            // This is not actually the service we think is running...  this should not happen,
            // but if it does, fail hard.
            smap.mServicesByName.put(r.name, found);
            throw new IllegalStateException("Bringing down " + r + " but actually running "
                    + found);
        }
        smap.mServicesByIntent.remove(r.intent);
        r.totalRestartCount = 0;
        unscheduleServiceRestartLocked(r, 0, true);

        // Also make sure it is not on the pending list.
        for (int i=mPendingServices.size()-1; i>=0; i--) {
            if (mPendingServices.get(i) == r) {
                mPendingServices.remove(i);
                if (DEBUG_SERVICE) Slog.v(TAG_SERVICE, "Removed pending: " + r);
            }
        }

        cancelForegroundNotificationLocked(r);
        if (r.isForeground) {
            decActiveForegroundAppLocked(smap, r);
        }
        r.isForeground = false;
        r.foregroundId = 0;
        r.foregroundNoti = null;

        // Clear start entries.
        r.clearDeliveredStartsLocked();
        r.pendingStarts.clear();

        if (r.app != null) {
            synchronized (r.stats.getBatteryStats()) {
                r.stats.stopLaunchedLocked();
            }
            r.app.services.remove(r);
            if (r.whitelistManager) {
                updateWhitelistManagerLocked(r.app);
            }
            if (r.app.thread != null) {
                updateServiceForegroundLocked(r.app, false);
                try {
                    bumpServiceExecutingLocked(r, false, "destroy");
                    mDestroyingServices.add(r);
                    r.destroying = true;
                    mAm.updateOomAdjLocked(r.app, true);
                    r.app.thread.scheduleStopService(r);
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    Slog.w(TAG, "Exception when destroying service "
                            + r.shortName, e);
                    serviceProcessGoneLocked(r);
                }
            } else {
                if (DEBUG_SERVICE) Slog.v(
                    TAG_SERVICE, "Removed service that has no process: " + r);
            }
        } else {
            if (DEBUG_SERVICE) Slog.v(
                TAG_SERVICE, "Removed service that is not running: " + r);
        }

        if (r.bindings.size() > 0) {
            r.bindings.clear();
        }

        if (r.restarter instanceof ServiceRestarter) {
           ((ServiceRestarter)r.restarter).setService(null);
        }

        int memFactor = mAm.mProcessStats.getMemFactorLocked();
        long now = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
        if (r.tracker != null) {
            r.tracker.setStarted(false, memFactor, now);
            r.tracker.setBound(false, memFactor, now);
            if (r.executeNesting == 0) {
                r.tracker.clearCurrentOwner(r, false);
                r.tracker = null;
            }
        }

        smap.ensureNotStartingBackgroundLocked(r);
    }

上面代码中让Service用crash代替anr的代码如下:

        // Check to see if the service had been started as foreground, but being
        // brought down before actually showing a notification.  That is not allowed.
        if (r.fgRequired) {
            Slog.w(TAG_SERVICE, "Bringing down service while still waiting for start foreground: "
                    + r);
            r.fgRequired = false;
            r.fgWaiting = false;
            mAm.mHandler.removeMessages(
                    ActivityManagerService.SERVICE_FOREGROUND_TIMEOUT_MSG, r);
            if (r.app != null) {
                Message msg = mAm.mHandler.obtainMessage(
                        ActivityManagerService.SERVICE_FOREGROUND_CRASH_MSG);
                msg.obj = r.app;
                mAm.mHandler.sendMessage(msg);
            }
        }

 

5. 总结

其实startForegroundService的流程和startService总体来讲是差不多的,区别就在于5s 的anr时间限制内Service要调用startForeground。

如果没有及时调用,则会anr。又或者5s之内Service destroy了,那就来一个差不多的crash。

anr和crash中都会带有如下信息:“Context.startForegroundService() did not then call Service.startForeground()”

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