(二十三) Android O view的绘制流程学习

前言:招聘要求中有对view的绘制流程有基本了解的要求,那就专门学习一下吧,之前学习自定义控件其实已经对其中部分流程有所涉及了。


参考博客:

1.Android View的绘制流程

作者:Kelin
链接:https://www.jianshu.com/p/5a71014e7b1b
來源:简书

著作权归作者所有。商业转载请联系作者获得授权,非商业转载请注明出处。

PS:参考博客没有目录,很不方便,csdn的目录还是挺好的,重构一下结构,便于自己理解

2.Android应用层View绘制流程与源码分析

PS:源码基于Android O


1. 绘制流程概述

View的绘制基本分为measure、layout、draw 过程。在上次学习自定义控件的时候就知道了自定义控件可以重写onMeasure和onDraw方法来控制组件的大小和组件的绘制,当时还疑惑为什么没有组件布局的流程,现在看来就是差了一步layout流程。

不知道为什么我联想到了:如何将一只大象放入冰箱?

1. 打开冰箱(measure:如果忽略大象放不进去的问题,打开冰箱很像measure操作,展示冰箱的大小和大象的大小)

2. 把大象放到冰箱了(layout)

3. 关闭冰箱(draw)

感觉有点牵强=-=


2. 影响子view绘制的因素

简单来说子view绘制受到父view和自身影响,分开来说就有3*3即9种情况,对应于父View 3种情况和子View 3种情况的任意配合来决定子类的绘制规格(逻辑对应于ViewGroup.getChildMeasureSpec()方法):

父View 3种情况对应于MeasureSpec一共有三种模式

  • UPSPECIFIED : 父容器对于子容器没有任何限制,子容器想要多大就多大
  • EXACTLY: 父容器已经为子容器设置了尺寸,子容器应当服从这些边界,不论子容器想要多大的空间。
  • AT_MOST:子容器可以是声明大小内的任意大小

子View 3种情况对应于子View 的layout_xxxx
  • MATCH_PARENT
  • WRAP_CONTENT
  • 确定的值(200dp)
至于“为什么子View的绘制会与父view的MeasureSpec有关”作者在讲述MeasureSpec的概念时候提及:
“对于View的测量,肯定会和MeasureSpec接触,MeasureSpec是两个单词组成,翻译过来“测量规格”或者“测量参数”,很多博客包括官方文档对他的说明基本都是“一个MeasureSpec封装了从父容器传递给子容器的布局要求”,这个MeasureSpec 封装的是父容器传递给子容器的布局要求,而不是父容器对子容器的布局要求,“传递” 两个字很重要,更精确的说法应该这个MeasureSpec是由父View的MeasureSpec和子View的LayoutParams通过简单的计算得出一个针对子View的测量要求,这个测量要求就是MeasureSpec。”

毕竟子view是依托于父view而存在的,肯定会受到父view的影响。下面复制粘贴一下参考博客的分类概述=-=不看代码,光看解释就感觉挺有道理的。(逻辑对应于ViewGroup.getChildMeasureSpec()方法)

2.1 EXACTLY

如果父View的MeasureSpec 是EXACTLY,说明父View的大小是确切的,(确切的意思很好理解,如果一个View的MeasureSpec 是EXACTLY,那么它的size 是多大,最后展示到屏幕就一定是那么大)。

1、如果子View 的layout_xxxx是MATCH_PARENT,父View的大小是确切,子View的大小又MATCH_PARENT(充满整个父View),那么子View的大小肯定是确切的,而且大小值就是父View的size。所以子View的size=父View的size,mode=EXACTLY

2、如果子View 的layout_xxxx是WRAP_CONTENT,也就是子View的大小是根据自己的content 来决定的,但是子View的毕竟是子View,大小不能超过父View的大小,但是子View的是WRAP_CONTENT,我们还不知道具体子View的大小是多少,要等到child.measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec) 调用的时候才去真正测量子View 自己content的大小(比如TextView wrap_content 的时候你要测量TextView content 的大小,也就是字符占用的大小,这个测量就是在child.measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec)的时候,才能测出字符的大小,MeasureSpec 的意思就是假设你字符100px,但是MeasureSpec 要求最大的只能50px,这时候就要截掉了)。通过上述描述,子View MeasureSpec mode的应该是AT_MOST,而size 暂定父View的 size,表示的意思就是子View的大小没有不确切的值,子View的大小最大为父View的大小,不能超过父View的大小(这就是AT_MOST 的意思),然后这个MeasureSpec 做为子View measure方法 的参数,做为子View的大小的约束或者说是要求,有了这个MeasureSpec子View再实现自己的测量。

3、如果如果子View 的layout_xxxx是确定的值(200dp),那么就更简单了,不管你父View的mode和size是什么,我都写死了就是200dp,那么控件最后展示就是就是200dp,不管我的父View有多大,也不管我自己的content 有多大,反正我就是这么大,所以这种情况MeasureSpec 的mode = EXACTLY 大小size=你在layout_xxxx 填的那个值。


2.2 AT_MOST

如果父View的MeasureSpec 是AT_MOST,说明父View的大小是不确定,最大的大小是MeasureSpec 的size值,不能超过这个值。

1、如果子View 的layout_xxxx是MATCH_PARENT,父View的大小是不确定(只知道最大只能多大),子View的大小MATCH_PARENT(充满整个父View),那么子View你即使充满父容器,你的大小也是不确定的,父View自己都确定不了自己的大小,你MATCH_PARENT你的大小肯定也不能确定的,所以子View的mode=AT_MOST,size=父View的size,也就是你在布局虽然写的是MATCH_PARENT,但是由于你的父容器自己的大小不确定,导致子View的大小也不确定,只知道最大就是父View的大小。

2、如果子View 的layout_xxxx是WRAP_CONTENT,父View的大小是不确定(只知道最大只能多大),子View又是WRAP_CONTENT,那么在子View的Content没算出大小之前,子View的大小最大就是父View的大小,所以子View MeasureSpec mode的就是AT_MOST,而size 暂定父View的 size。

3、如果如果子View 的layout_xxxx是确定的值(200dp),同上,写多少就是多少,改变不了的。



2.3 UNSPECIFIED

如果父View的MeasureSpec 是UNSPECIFIED(未指定),表示没有任何束缚和约束,不像AT_MOST表示最大只能多大,不也像EXACTLY表示父View确定的大小,子View可以得到任意想要的大小,不受约束

1、如果子View 的layout_xxxx是MATCH_PARENT,因为父View的MeasureSpec是UNSPECIFIED,父View自己的大小并没有任何约束和要求,
那么对于子View来说无论是WRAP_CONTENT还是MATCH_PARENT,子View也是没有任何束缚的,想多大就多大,没有不能超过多少的要求,一旦没有任何要求和约束,size的值就没有任何意义了,所以一般都直接设置成0

2、如果子View 的layout_xxxx是WRAP_CONTENT,因为父View的MeasureSpec是UNSPECIFIED,父View自己的大小并没有任何约束和要求,
那么对于子View来说无论是WRAP_CONTENT还是MATCH_PARENT,子View也是没有任何束缚的,想多大就多大,没有不能超过多少的要求,一旦没有任何要求和约束,size的值就没有任何意义了,所以一般都直接设置成0

3、如果如果子View 的layout_xxxx是确定的值(200dp),同上,写多少就是多少,改变不了的(记住,只有设置的确切的值,那么无论怎么测量,大小都是不变的,都是你写的那个值)


3.  结合源码分析

上面对view的分类虽然讲的很对,但总感觉有种空中楼阁的感觉,试着结合源码看一下,主要还是对应于measure、layout、draw三个过程。

measure:测量view的大小

/**
     * <p>
     * This is called to find out how big a view should be. The parent
     * supplies constraint information in the width and height parameters.
     * </p>
     *
     * <p>
     * The actual measurement work of a view is performed in
     * {@link #onMeasure(int, int)}, called by this method. Therefore, only
     * {@link #onMeasure(int, int)} can and must be overridden by subclasses.
     * </p>
     *
     *
     * @param widthMeasureSpec Horizontal space requirements as imposed by the
     *        parent
     * @param heightMeasureSpec Vertical space requirements as imposed by the
     *        parent
     *
     * @see #onMeasure(int, int)
     */
     public final void measure(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {

layout:为视图及其所有后代指定大小和位置

 /**
     * Assign a size and position to a view and all of its
     * descendants
     *
     * <p>This is the second phase of the layout mechanism.
     * (The first is measuring). In this phase, each parent calls
     * layout on all of its children to position them.
     * This is typically done using the child measurements
     * that were stored in the measure pass().</p>
     *
     * <p>Derived classes should not override this method.
     * Derived classes with children should override
     * onLayout. In that method, they should
     * call layout on each of their children.</p>
     *
     * @param l Left position, relative to parent
     * @param t Top position, relative to parent
     * @param r Right position, relative to parent
     * @param b Bottom position, relative to parent
     */ 
    @SuppressWarnings({"unchecked"})
    public void layout(int l, int t, int r, int b) 

draw:这个方法由ViewGroup.drawChild()调用,让每个子视图自己绘制。这是视图专门基于图层类型和硬件加速进行渲染的方法。

 /**
     * This method is called by ViewGroup.drawChild() to have each child view draw itself.
     *
     * This is where the View specializes rendering behavior based on layer type,
     * and hardware acceleration.
     */
    boolean draw(Canvas canvas, ViewGroup parent, long drawingTime) {

3.1 measure

measure方法中主要通过调用onMeasure()实现view的宽和高计算

3.1.1 单个view的measure

1)onMeasure()方法必须被子类调用来提供精确和有用的内容测量

2)在onMeasure()中必须调用setMeasuredDimension(int, int)来存储测量结果,不然会导致measure()抛出IllegalStateException异常。

3)重写的onMeasure()测量得到的宽和高必须不小于这个view本身的最小宽度和高度({@link #getSuggestedMinimumHeight()} and * {@link #getSuggestedMinimumWidth()})

/**
     * <p>
     * Measure the view and its content to determine the measured width and the
     * measured height. This method is invoked by {@link #measure(int, int)} and
     * should be overridden by subclasses to provide accurate and efficient
     * measurement of their contents.
     * </p>
     *
     * <p>
     * <strong>CONTRACT:</strong> When overriding this method, you
     * <em>must</em> call {@link #setMeasuredDimension(int, int)} to store the
     * measured width and height of this view. Failure to do so will trigger an
     * <code>IllegalStateException</code>, thrown by
     * {@link #measure(int, int)}. Calling the superclass'
     * {@link #onMeasure(int, int)} is a valid use.
     * </p>
     *
     * <p>
     * The base class implementation of measure defaults to the background size,
     * unless a larger size is allowed by the MeasureSpec. Subclasses should
     * override {@link #onMeasure(int, int)} to provide better measurements of
     * their content.
     * </p>
     *
     * <p>
     * If this method is overridden, it is the subclass's responsibility to make
     * sure the measured height and width are at least the view's minimum height
     * and width ({@link #getSuggestedMinimumHeight()} and
     * {@link #getSuggestedMinimumWidth()}).
     * </p>
     *
     * @param widthMeasureSpec horizontal space requirements as imposed by the parent.
     *                         The requirements are encoded with
     *                         {@link android.view.View.MeasureSpec}.
     * @param heightMeasureSpec vertical space requirements as imposed by the parent.
     *                         The requirements are encoded with
     *                         {@link android.view.View.MeasureSpec}.
     *
     * @see #getMeasuredWidth()
     * @see #getMeasuredHeight()
     * @see #setMeasuredDimension(int, int)
     * @see #getSuggestedMinimumHeight()
     * @see #getSuggestedMinimumWidth()
     * @see android.view.View.MeasureSpec#getMode(int)
     * @see android.view.View.MeasureSpec#getSize(int)
     */
    protected void onMeasure(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
        setMeasuredDimension(getDefaultSize(getSuggestedMinimumWidth(), widthMeasureSpec),
                getDefaultSize(getSuggestedMinimumHeight(), heightMeasureSpec));
    }

对于非ViewGroup的View而言,通过调用上面默认的onMeasure即可完成View的测量,当然你也可以重载onMeasure并调用setMeasuredDimension来设置任意大小的布局,但一般不这么做。

我们可以看见onMeasure默认的实现仅仅调用了setMeasuredDimension,setMeasuredDimension函数是一个很关键的函数,它对View的成员变量mMeasuredWidth和mMeasuredHeight变量赋值,measure的主要目的就是对View树中的每个View的mMeasuredWidth和mMeasuredHeight进行赋值,所以一旦这两个变量被赋值意味着该View的测量工作结束。既然这样那我们就看看设置的默认尺寸大小吧,可以看见setMeasuredDimension传入的参数都是通过getDefaultSize返回的,所以再来看下getDefaultSize方法源码,如下:

/**
     * Utility to return a default size. Uses the supplied size if the
     * MeasureSpec imposed no constraints. Will get larger if allowed
     * by the MeasureSpec.
     *
     * @param size Default size for this view
     * @param measureSpec Constraints imposed by the parent
     * @return The size this view should be.
     */
    public static int getDefaultSize(int size, int measureSpec) {
        int result = size;
        int specMode = MeasureSpec.getMode(measureSpec);
        int specSize = MeasureSpec.getSize(measureSpec);

        switch (specMode) {
        case MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED:
            result = size;
            break;
        case MeasureSpec.AT_MOST:
        case MeasureSpec.EXACTLY:
            result = specSize;
            break;
        }
        return result;
    }

如果parent的specMode等于AT_MOST或EXACTLY就返回specSize,这就是系统默认的规格。而getSuggestedMinimumHeight和getSuggestedMinimumWidth是通过将view的最小值和background的最小值相比取较大的那个得到的。

 /**
     * Returns the suggested minimum height that the view should use. This
     * returns the maximum of the view's minimum height
     * and the background's minimum height
     * ({@link android.graphics.drawable.Drawable#getMinimumHeight()}).
     * <p>
     * When being used in {@link #onMeasure(int, int)}, the caller should still
     * ensure the returned height is within the requirements of the parent.
     *
     * @return The suggested minimum height of the view.
     */
    protected int getSuggestedMinimumHeight() {
        return (mBackground == null) ? mMinHeight : max(mMinHeight, mBackground.getMinimumHeight());

    }

    /**
     * Returns the suggested minimum width that the view should use. This
     * returns the maximum of the view's minimum width
     * and the background's minimum width
     *  ({@link android.graphics.drawable.Drawable#getMinimumWidth()}).
     * <p>
     * When being used in {@link #onMeasure(int, int)}, the caller should still
     * ensure the returned width is within the requirements of the parent.
     *
     * @return The suggested minimum width of the view.
     */
    protected int getSuggestedMinimumWidth() {
        return (mBackground == null) ? mMinWidth : max(mMinWidth, mBackground.getMinimumWidth());
    }

说道这里只是提及了view的默认onMeasure实现,也就是说一直停留在单个view上,一般一个布局中都是各种view的嵌套,这就涉及到view的递归measure。

3.1.2 view的递归measure

复制一下参考博客讲解view的递归measure的流程图:

这块参考博客很突然地带入了如下讲解,先略过不管:

实际能够嵌套的View一般都是ViewGroup的子类,所以在ViewGroup中定义了measureChildren, measureChild, measureChildWithMargins方法来对子视图进行测量,measureChildren内部实质只是循环调用measureChild,measureChild和measureChildWithMargins的区别就是是否把margin和padding也作为子视图的大小。


先设想一个很普通的垂直线性布A,里面还嵌套了几个线性布局,称为B/C/D,子布局中放了一些按钮和文本框。然后套用上面的流程图,正常measure流程是先measure最大的线程布局A,然后发现它内部包含了B、C、D布局,继而继续分别measure它们,measure它们的时候发现其内部有几个view,然后递归地在measure其中包含的按钮和文本框,递归完成后完成measure的整体流程。

对应于LinearLayout就是其onMeasure中的逻辑。(LinearLayout继承了ViewGroup,而ViewGroup继承了View)

@Override
    protected void onMeasure(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
        if (mOrientation == VERTICAL) {
            measureVertical(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
        } else {
            measureHorizontal(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
        }
    }
这里只看下垂直的线性布局的高度是如何measure的(太长了,可略过不看,后面有简略分析):
   /**
     * Measures the children when the orientation of this LinearLayout is set
     * to {@link #VERTICAL}.
     *
     * @param widthMeasureSpec Horizontal space requirements as imposed by the parent.
     * @param heightMeasureSpec Vertical space requirements as imposed by the parent.
     *
     * @see #getOrientation()
     * @see #setOrientation(int)
     * @see #onMeasure(int, int)
     */
    void measureVertical(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
        mTotalLength = 0;
        int maxWidth = 0;
        int childState = 0;
        int alternativeMaxWidth = 0;
        int weightedMaxWidth = 0;
        boolean allFillParent = true;
        float totalWeight = 0;

        final int count = getVirtualChildCount();

        final int widthMode = MeasureSpec.getMode(widthMeasureSpec);
        final int heightMode = MeasureSpec.getMode(heightMeasureSpec);

        boolean matchWidth = false;
        boolean skippedMeasure = false;

        final int baselineChildIndex = mBaselineAlignedChildIndex;
        final boolean useLargestChild = mUseLargestChild;

        int largestChildHeight = Integer.MIN_VALUE;
        int consumedExcessSpace = 0;

        int nonSkippedChildCount = 0;

        // See how tall everyone is. Also remember max width.
        for (int i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
            final View child = getVirtualChildAt(i);
            if (child == null) {
                mTotalLength += measureNullChild(i);
                continue;
            }

            if (child.getVisibility() == View.GONE) {
               i += getChildrenSkipCount(child, i);
               continue;
            }

            nonSkippedChildCount++;
            if (hasDividerBeforeChildAt(i)) {
                mTotalLength += mDividerHeight;
            }

            final LayoutParams lp = (LayoutParams) child.getLayoutParams();

            totalWeight += lp.weight;

            final boolean useExcessSpace = lp.height == 0 && lp.weight > 0;
            if (heightMode == MeasureSpec.EXACTLY && useExcessSpace) {
                // Optimization: don't bother measuring children who are only
                // laid out using excess space. These views will get measured
                // later if we have space to distribute.
                final int totalLength = mTotalLength;
                mTotalLength = Math.max(totalLength, totalLength + lp.topMargin + lp.bottomMargin);
                skippedMeasure = true;
            } else {
                if (useExcessSpace) {
                    // The heightMode is either UNSPECIFIED or AT_MOST, and
                    // this child is only laid out using excess space. Measure
                    // using WRAP_CONTENT so that we can find out the view's
                    // optimal height. We'll restore the original height of 0
                    // after measurement.
                    lp.height = LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT;
                }

                // Determine how big this child would like to be. If this or
                // previous children have given a weight, then we allow it to
                // use all available space (and we will shrink things later
                // if needed).
                final int usedHeight = totalWeight == 0 ? mTotalLength : 0;
                measureChildBeforeLayout(child, i, widthMeasureSpec, 0,
                        heightMeasureSpec, usedHeight);

                final int childHeight = child.getMeasuredHeight();
                if (useExcessSpace) {
                    // Restore the original height and record how much space
                    // we've allocated to excess-only children so that we can
                    // match the behavior of EXACTLY measurement.
                    lp.height = 0;
                    consumedExcessSpace += childHeight;
                }

                final int totalLength = mTotalLength;
                mTotalLength = Math.max(totalLength, totalLength + childHeight + lp.topMargin +
                       lp.bottomMargin + getNextLocationOffset(child));

                if (useLargestChild) {
                    largestChildHeight = Math.max(childHeight, largestChildHeight);
                }
            }

            /**
             * If applicable, compute the additional offset to the child's baseline
             * we'll need later when asked {@link #getBaseline}.
             */
            if ((baselineChildIndex >= 0) && (baselineChildIndex == i + 1)) {
               mBaselineChildTop = mTotalLength;
            }

            // if we are trying to use a child index for our baseline, the above
            // book keeping only works if there are no children above it with
            // weight.  fail fast to aid the developer.
            if (i < baselineChildIndex && lp.weight > 0) {
                throw new RuntimeException("A child of LinearLayout with index "
                        + "less than mBaselineAlignedChildIndex has weight > 0, which "
                        + "won't work.  Either remove the weight, or don't set "
                        + "mBaselineAlignedChildIndex.");
            }

            boolean matchWidthLocally = false;
            if (widthMode != MeasureSpec.EXACTLY && lp.width == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT) {
                // The width of the linear layout will scale, and at least one
                // child said it wanted to match our width. Set a flag
                // indicating that we need to remeasure at least that view when
                // we know our width.
                matchWidth = true;
                matchWidthLocally = true;
            }

            final int margin = lp.leftMargin + lp.rightMargin;
            final int measuredWidth = child.getMeasuredWidth() + margin;
            maxWidth = Math.max(maxWidth, measuredWidth);
            childState = combineMeasuredStates(childState, child.getMeasuredState());

            allFillParent = allFillParent && lp.width == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT;
            if (lp.weight > 0) {
                /*
                 * Widths of weighted Views are bogus if we end up
                 * remeasuring, so keep them separate.
                 */
                weightedMaxWidth = Math.max(weightedMaxWidth,
                        matchWidthLocally ? margin : measuredWidth);
            } else {
                alternativeMaxWidth = Math.max(alternativeMaxWidth,
                        matchWidthLocally ? margin : measuredWidth);
            }

            i += getChildrenSkipCount(child, i);
        }

        if (nonSkippedChildCount > 0 && hasDividerBeforeChildAt(count)) {
            mTotalLength += mDividerHeight;
        }

        if (useLargestChild &&
                (heightMode == MeasureSpec.AT_MOST || heightMode == MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED)) {
            mTotalLength = 0;

            for (int i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
                final View child = getVirtualChildAt(i);
                if (child == null) {
                    mTotalLength += measureNullChild(i);
                    continue;
                }

                if (child.getVisibility() == GONE) {
                    i += getChildrenSkipCount(child, i);
                    continue;
                }

                final LinearLayout.LayoutParams lp = (LinearLayout.LayoutParams)
                        child.getLayoutParams();
                // Account for negative margins
                final int totalLength = mTotalLength;
                mTotalLength = Math.max(totalLength, totalLength + largestChildHeight +
                        lp.topMargin + lp.bottomMargin + getNextLocationOffset(child));
            }
        }

        // Add in our padding
        mTotalLength += mPaddingTop + mPaddingBottom;

        int heightSize = mTotalLength;

        // Check against our minimum height
        heightSize = Math.max(heightSize, getSuggestedMinimumHeight());

        // Reconcile our calculated size with the heightMeasureSpec
        int heightSizeAndState = resolveSizeAndState(heightSize, heightMeasureSpec, 0);
        heightSize = heightSizeAndState & MEASURED_SIZE_MASK;
        // Either expand children with weight to take up available space or
        // shrink them if they extend beyond our current bounds. If we skipped
        // measurement on any children, we need to measure them now.
        int remainingExcess = heightSize - mTotalLength
                + (mAllowInconsistentMeasurement ? 0 : consumedExcessSpace);
        if (skippedMeasure || remainingExcess != 0 && totalWeight > 0.0f) {
            float remainingWeightSum = mWeightSum > 0.0f ? mWeightSum : totalWeight;

            mTotalLength = 0;

            for (int i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
                final View child = getVirtualChildAt(i);
                if (child == null || child.getVisibility() == View.GONE) {
                    continue;
                }

                final LayoutParams lp = (LayoutParams) child.getLayoutParams();
                final float childWeight = lp.weight;
                if (childWeight > 0) {
                    final int share = (int) (childWeight * remainingExcess / remainingWeightSum);
                    remainingExcess -= share;
                    remainingWeightSum -= childWeight;

                    final int childHeight;
                    if (mUseLargestChild && heightMode != MeasureSpec.EXACTLY) {
                        childHeight = largestChildHeight;
                    } else if (lp.height == 0 && (!mAllowInconsistentMeasurement
                            || heightMode == MeasureSpec.EXACTLY)) {
                        // This child needs to be laid out from scratch using
                        // only its share of excess space.
                        childHeight = share;
                    } else {
                        // This child had some intrinsic height to which we
                        // need to add its share of excess space.
                        childHeight = child.getMeasuredHeight() + share;
                    }

                    final int childHeightMeasureSpec = MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(
                            Math.max(0, childHeight), MeasureSpec.EXACTLY);
                    final int childWidthMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(widthMeasureSpec,
                            mPaddingLeft + mPaddingRight + lp.leftMargin + lp.rightMargin,
                            lp.width);
                    child.measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);

                    // Child may now not fit in vertical dimension.
                    childState = combineMeasuredStates(childState, child.getMeasuredState()
                            & (MEASURED_STATE_MASK>>MEASURED_HEIGHT_STATE_SHIFT));
                }

                final int margin =  lp.leftMargin + lp.rightMargin;
                final int measuredWidth = child.getMeasuredWidth() + margin;
                maxWidth = Math.max(maxWidth, measuredWidth);

                boolean matchWidthLocally = widthMode != MeasureSpec.EXACTLY &&
                        lp.width == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT;

                alternativeMaxWidth = Math.max(alternativeMaxWidth,
                        matchWidthLocally ? margin : measuredWidth);

                allFillParent = allFillParent && lp.width == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT;

                final int totalLength = mTotalLength;
                mTotalLength = Math.max(totalLength, totalLength + child.getMeasuredHeight() +
                        lp.topMargin + lp.bottomMargin + getNextLocationOffset(child));
            }

            // Add in our padding
            mTotalLength += mPaddingTop + mPaddingBottom;
            // TODO: Should we recompute the heightSpec based on the new total length?
        } else {
            alternativeMaxWidth = Math.max(alternativeMaxWidth,
                                           weightedMaxWidth);


            // We have no limit, so make all weighted views as tall as the largest child.
            // Children will have already been measured once.
            if (useLargestChild && heightMode != MeasureSpec.EXACTLY) {
                for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) {
                    final View child = getVirtualChildAt(i);
                    if (child == null || child.getVisibility() == View.GONE) {
                        continue;
                    }

                    final LinearLayout.LayoutParams lp =
                            (LinearLayout.LayoutParams) child.getLayoutParams();

                    float childExtra = lp.weight;
                    if (childExtra > 0) {
                        child.measure(
                                MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(child.getMeasuredWidth(),
                                        MeasureSpec.EXACTLY),
                                MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(largestChildHeight,
                                        MeasureSpec.EXACTLY));
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        if (!allFillParent && widthMode != MeasureSpec.EXACTLY) {
            maxWidth = alternativeMaxWidth;
        }

        maxWidth += mPaddingLeft + mPaddingRight;

        // Check against our minimum width
        maxWidth = Math.max(maxWidth, getSuggestedMinimumWidth());

        setMeasuredDimension(resolveSizeAndState(maxWidth, widthMeasureSpec, childState),
                heightSizeAndState);

        if (matchWidth) {
            forceUniformWidth(count, heightMeasureSpec);
        }
    }

不求看懂这么长串代码了,简单看了线程布局的宽和高大概是如何计算出来的就好了。

1. 最重要的setMeasuredDimension

setMeasuredDimension(resolveSizeAndState(maxWidth, widthMeasureSpec, childState),
                heightSizeAndState);

2. 再简单地看下heightSizeAndState是怎么算的,看起来是算出各个child的高度相加然后再加上距离顶部和底部的padding。

       // Add in our padding
        mTotalLength += mPaddingTop + mPaddingBottom;

        int heightSize = mTotalLength;

        // Check against our minimum height
        heightSize = Math.max(heightSize, getSuggestedMinimumHeight());

        // Reconcile our calculated size with the heightMeasureSpec
        int heightSizeAndState = resolveSizeAndState(heightSize, heightMeasureSpec, 0);

这里注意一个细节,和onMeasure中源码注释相对应的:

// Check against our minimum height
        heightSize = Math.max(heightSize, getSuggestedMinimumHeight());

3.继而再看下mTotalLength是怎么得来的:

        // See how tall everyone is. Also remember max width.
        for (int i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
            final View child = getVirtualChildAt(i);
            ...
            final LayoutParams lp = (LayoutParams) child.getLayoutParams();

            totalWeight += lp.weight;

            ...
                // Determine how big this child would like to be. If this or
                // previous children have given a weight, then we allow it to
                // use all available space (and we will shrink things later
                // if needed).
                final int usedHeight = totalWeight == 0 ? mTotalLength : 0;
                measureChildBeforeLayout(child, i, widthMeasureSpec, 0,
                        heightMeasureSpec, usedHeight);

                final int childHeight = child.getMeasuredHeight();
                if (useExcessSpace) {
                    // Restore the original height and record how much space
                    // we've allocated to excess-only children so that we can
                    // match the behavior of EXACTLY measurement.
                    lp.height = 0;
                    consumedExcessSpace += childHeight;
                }

                final int totalLength = mTotalLength;
                mTotalLength = Math.max(totalLength, totalLength + childHeight + lp.topMargin +
                       lp.bottomMargin + getNextLocationOffset(child));

                if (useLargestChild) {
                    largestChildHeight = Math.max(childHeight, largestChildHeight);
                }
            }
            ...
        }

我将费解的和主题代码不是很相关的代码都暂时去掉了。可以简化为

1)获取各个child

2)  计算各个child的高度(先调用measureChildBeforeLayout,不然获取的高度是不准确的)

3)将各个child的高度累加到mTotalLength上

和流程图讲的差不多。

这时候再看计算各个child的高度的measureChildBeforeLayout方法(这里看到了参考博客中提及的measureChildWithMargins方法):

/**
     * <p>Measure the child according to the parent's measure specs. This
     * method should be overriden by subclasses to force the sizing of
     * children. This method is called by {@link #measureVertical(int, int)} and
     * {@link #measureHorizontal(int, int)}.</p>
     *
     * @param child the child to measure
     * @param childIndex the index of the child in this view
     * @param widthMeasureSpec horizontal space requirements as imposed by the parent
     * @param totalWidth extra space that has been used up by the parent horizontally
     * @param heightMeasureSpec vertical space requirements as imposed by the parent
     * @param totalHeight extra space that has been used up by the parent vertically
     */
    void measureChildBeforeLayout(View child, int childIndex,
            int widthMeasureSpec, int totalWidth, int heightMeasureSpec,
            int totalHeight) {
        measureChildWithMargins(child, widthMeasureSpec, totalWidth,
                heightMeasureSpec, totalHeight);
    }

继而调用到ViewGroup.measureChildWithMargins方法

/**
     * Ask one of the children of this view to measure itself, taking into
     * account both the MeasureSpec requirements for this view and its padding
     * and margins. The child must have MarginLayoutParams The heavy lifting is
     * done in getChildMeasureSpec.
     *
     * @param child The child to measure
     * @param parentWidthMeasureSpec The width requirements for this view
     * @param widthUsed Extra space that has been used up by the parent
     *        horizontally (possibly by other children of the parent)
     * @param parentHeightMeasureSpec The height requirements for this view
     * @param heightUsed Extra space that has been used up by the parent
     *        vertically (possibly by other children of the parent)
     */
    protected void measureChildWithMargins(View child,
            int parentWidthMeasureSpec, int widthUsed,
            int parentHeightMeasureSpec, int heightUsed) {
        final MarginLayoutParams lp = (MarginLayoutParams) child.getLayoutParams();

        final int childWidthMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(parentWidthMeasureSpec,
                mPaddingLeft + mPaddingRight + lp.leftMargin + lp.rightMargin
                        + widthUsed, lp.width);
        final int childHeightMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(parentHeightMeasureSpec,
                mPaddingTop + mPaddingBottom + lp.topMargin + lp.bottomMargin
                        + heightUsed, lp.height);

        child.measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
    }

这时候再调用子view的measure方法,当然接着会调用到OnMeasure方法。

其中getChildMeasureSpec的方法可以和第二节相对应呢:

 /**
     * Does the hard part of measureChildren: figuring out the MeasureSpec to
     * pass to a particular child. This method figures out the right MeasureSpec
     * for one dimension (height or width) of one child view.
     *
     * The goal is to combine information from our MeasureSpec with the
     * LayoutParams of the child to get the best possible results. For example,
     * if the this view knows its size (because its MeasureSpec has a mode of
     * EXACTLY), and the child has indicated in its LayoutParams that it wants
     * to be the same size as the parent, the parent should ask the child to
     * layout given an exact size.
     *
     * @param spec The requirements for this view
     * @param padding The padding of this view for the current dimension and
     *        margins, if applicable
     * @param childDimension How big the child wants to be in the current
     *        dimension
     * @return a MeasureSpec integer for the child
     */
    public static int getChildMeasureSpec(int spec, int padding, int childDimension) {
        int specMode = MeasureSpec.getMode(spec);
        int specSize = MeasureSpec.getSize(spec);

        int size = Math.max(0, specSize - padding);

        int resultSize = 0;
        int resultMode = 0;

        switch (specMode) {
        // Parent has imposed an exact size on us
        case MeasureSpec.EXACTLY:
            if (childDimension >= 0) {
                resultSize = childDimension;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT) {
                // Child wants to be our size. So be it.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT) {
                // Child wants to determine its own size. It can't be
                // bigger than us.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.AT_MOST;
            }
            break;

        // Parent has imposed a maximum size on us
        case MeasureSpec.AT_MOST:
            if (childDimension >= 0) {
                // Child wants a specific size... so be it
                resultSize = childDimension;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT) {
                // Child wants to be our size, but our size is not fixed.
                // Constrain child to not be bigger than us.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.AT_MOST;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT) {
                // Child wants to determine its own size. It can't be
                // bigger than us.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.AT_MOST;
            }
            break;

        // Parent asked to see how big we want to be
        case MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED:
            if (childDimension >= 0) {
                // Child wants a specific size... let him have it
                resultSize = childDimension;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT) {
                // Child wants to be our size... find out how big it should
                // be
                resultSize = View.sUseZeroUnspecifiedMeasureSpec ? 0 : size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT) {
                // Child wants to determine its own size.... find out how
                // big it should be
                resultSize = View.sUseZeroUnspecifiedMeasureSpec ? 0 : size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED;
            }
            break;
        }
        //noinspection ResourceType
        return MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(resultSize, resultMode);
    }

measureChildren和measureChild类似。

 /**
     * Ask all of the children of this view to measure themselves, taking into
     * account both the MeasureSpec requirements for this view and its padding.
     * We skip children that are in the GONE state The heavy lifting is done in
     * getChildMeasureSpec.
     *
     * @param widthMeasureSpec The width requirements for this view
     * @param heightMeasureSpec The height requirements for this view
     */
    protected void measureChildren(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
        final int size = mChildrenCount;
        final View[] children = mChildren;
        for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
            final View child = children[i];
            if ((child.mViewFlags & VISIBILITY_MASK) != GONE) {
                measureChild(child, widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Ask one of the children of this view to measure itself, taking into
     * account both the MeasureSpec requirements for this view and its padding.
     * The heavy lifting is done in getChildMeasureSpec.
     *
     * @param child The child to measure
     * @param parentWidthMeasureSpec The width requirements for this view
     * @param parentHeightMeasureSpec The height requirements for this view
     */
    protected void measureChild(View child, int parentWidthMeasureSpec,
            int parentHeightMeasureSpec) {
        final LayoutParams lp = child.getLayoutParams();

        final int childWidthMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(parentWidthMeasureSpec,
                mPaddingLeft + mPaddingRight, lp.width);
        final int childHeightMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(parentHeightMeasureSpec,
                mPaddingTop + mPaddingBottom, lp.height);

        child.measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
    }


3.1.3 总结

抄一下参考博客的总结=-=

通过上面分析可以看出measure过程主要就是从顶层父View向子View递归调用view.measure方法(measure中又回调onMeasure方法)的过程。具体measure核心主要有如下几点:

  • MeasureSpec(View的内部类)测量规格为int型,值由高2位规格模式specMode和低30位具体尺寸specSize组成。其中specMode只有三种值:
MeasureSpec.EXACTLY //确定模式,父View希望子View的大小是确定的,由specSize决定;
MeasureSpec.AT_MOST //最多模式,父View希望子View的大小最多是specSize指定的值;
MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED //未指定模式,父View完全依据子View的设计值来决定; 
  • View的measure方法是final的,不允许重载,View子类只能重载onMeasure来完成自己的测量逻辑。

  • 最顶层DecorView测量时的MeasureSpec是由ViewRootImpl中getRootMeasureSpec方法确定的(LayoutParams宽高参数均为MATCH_PARENT,specMode是EXACTLY,specSize为物理屏幕大小)。

  • ViewGroup类提供了measureChild,measureChild和measureChildWithMargins方法,简化了父子View的尺寸计算。

  • 只要是ViewGroup的子类就必须要求LayoutParams继承子MarginLayoutParams,否则无法使用layout_margin参数。

  • View的布局大小由父View和子View共同决定。

  • 使用View的getMeasuredWidth()和getMeasuredHeight()方法来获取View测量的宽高,必须保证这两个方法在onMeasure流程之后被调用才能返回有效值。



3.2 layout

再抄下layout的流程图:

layout调用流程从上图看起来是和measure类似的,那就不走歪路了,直接从LinearLayout看下流程。

@Override
    protected void onLayout(boolean changed, int l, int t, int r, int b) {
        if (mOrientation == VERTICAL) {
            layoutVertical(l, t, r, b);
        } else {
            layoutHorizontal(l, t, r, b);
        }
    }

一样的只看layoutVertical方法

   /**
     * Position the children during a layout pass if the orientation of this
     * LinearLayout is set to {@link #VERTICAL}.
     *
     * @see #getOrientation()
     * @see #setOrientation(int)
     * @see #onLayout(boolean, int, int, int, int)
     * @param left
     * @param top
     * @param right
     * @param bottom
     */
    void layoutVertical(int left, int top, int right, int bottom) {
        final int paddingLeft = mPaddingLeft;

        int childTop;
        int childLeft;

        // Where right end of child should go
        final int width = right - left;
        int childRight = width - mPaddingRight;

        // Space available for child
        int childSpace = width - paddingLeft - mPaddingRight;

        final int count = getVirtualChildCount();

        final int majorGravity = mGravity & Gravity.VERTICAL_GRAVITY_MASK;
        final int minorGravity = mGravity & Gravity.RELATIVE_HORIZONTAL_GRAVITY_MASK;

        switch (majorGravity) {
           case Gravity.BOTTOM:
               // mTotalLength contains the padding already
               childTop = mPaddingTop + bottom - top - mTotalLength;
               break;

               // mTotalLength contains the padding already
           case Gravity.CENTER_VERTICAL:
               childTop = mPaddingTop + (bottom - top - mTotalLength) / 2;
               break;

           case Gravity.TOP:
           default:
               childTop = mPaddingTop;
               break;
        }

        for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) {
            final View child = getVirtualChildAt(i);
            if (child == null) {
                childTop += measureNullChild(i);
            } else if (child.getVisibility() != GONE) {
                final int childWidth = child.getMeasuredWidth();
                final int childHeight = child.getMeasuredHeight();

                final LinearLayout.LayoutParams lp =
                        (LinearLayout.LayoutParams) child.getLayoutParams();

                int gravity = lp.gravity;
                if (gravity < 0) {
                    gravity = minorGravity;
                }
                final int layoutDirection = getLayoutDirection();
                final int absoluteGravity = Gravity.getAbsoluteGravity(gravity, layoutDirection);
                switch (absoluteGravity & Gravity.HORIZONTAL_GRAVITY_MASK) {
                    case Gravity.CENTER_HORIZONTAL:
                        childLeft = paddingLeft + ((childSpace - childWidth) / 2)
                                + lp.leftMargin - lp.rightMargin;
                        break;

                    case Gravity.RIGHT:
                        childLeft = childRight - childWidth - lp.rightMargin;
                        break;

                    case Gravity.LEFT:
                    default:
                        childLeft = paddingLeft + lp.leftMargin;
                        break;
                }

                if (hasDividerBeforeChildAt(i)) {
                    childTop += mDividerHeight;
                }

                childTop += lp.topMargin;
                setChildFrame(child, childLeft, childTop + getLocationOffset(child),
                        childWidth, childHeight);
                childTop += childHeight + lp.bottomMargin + getNextLocationOffset(child);

                i += getChildrenSkipCount(child, i);
            }
        }
    }

简单来看就是计算得到各个child的上下左右间距,然后调用setChildFrame实现递归调用child的layout方法。

 private void setChildFrame(View child, int left, int top, int width, int height) {
        child.layout(left, top, left + width, top + height);
    }

补充一下:如下方法可以调用获取width和height得益于之前measure递归child的时候设置过正确的width和height。

                final int childWidth = child.getMeasuredWidth();
                final int childHeight = child.getMeasuredHeight();

到这里就不得不提getWidth()、getHeight()和getMeasuredWidth()、getMeasuredHeight()这两对方法之间的区别(上面分析measure过程已经说过getMeasuredWidth()、getMeasuredHeight()必须在onMeasure之后使用才有效)。可以看出来getWidth()与getHeight()方法必须在layout(int l, int t, int r, int b)执行之后才有效(因为在这之后mRight和mLeft才被初始化)。那我们看下View源码中这些方法的实现吧,如下:

/**
     * Return the width of the your view.
     *
     * @return The width of your view, in pixels.
     */
    @ViewDebug.ExportedProperty(category = "layout")
    public final int getWidth() {
        return mRight - mLeft;
    }

    /**
     * Return the height of your view.
     *
     * @return The height of your view, in pixels.
     */
    @ViewDebug.ExportedProperty(category = "layout")
    public final int getHeight() {
        return mBottom - mTop;
    }

整个layout过程比较容易理解,从上面分析可以看出layout也是从顶层父View向子View的递归调用view.layout方法的过程,即父View根据上一步measure子View所得到的布局大小和布局参数,将子View放在合适的位置上。具体layout核心主要有以下几点:

  • View.layout方法可被重载,ViewGroup.layout为final的不可重载,ViewGroup.onLayout为abstract的,子类必须重载实现自己的位置逻辑。

  • measure操作完成后得到的是对每个View经测量过的measuredWidth和measuredHeight,layout操作完成之后得到的是对每个View进行位置分配后的mLeft、mTop、mRight、mBottom,这些值都是相对于父View来说的。

  • 凡是layout_XXX的布局属性基本都针对的是包含子View的ViewGroup的,当对一个没有父容器的View设置相关layout_XXX属性是没有任何意义的。

  • 使用View的getWidth()和getHeight()方法来获取View测量的宽高,必须保证这两个方法在onLayout流程之后被调用才能返回有效值。

@Override
    public final void layout(int l, int t, int r, int b) {
        if (!mSuppressLayout && (mTransition == null || !mTransition.isChangingLayout())) {
            if (mTransition != null) {
                mTransition.layoutChange(this);
            }
            super.layout(l, t, r, b);
        } else {
            // record the fact that we noop'd it; request layout when transition finishes
            mLayoutCalledWhileSuppressed = true;
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected abstract void onLayout(boolean changed,
            int l, int t, int r, int b);


3.3 draw

同样,抄一下流程图:

从View的draw方法开始分看见整个View的draw方法很复杂,但是源码注释也很明显。

 /**
     * Manually render this view (and all of its children) to the given Canvas.
     * The view must have already done a full layout before this function is
     * called.  When implementing a view, implement
     * {@link #onDraw(android.graphics.Canvas)} instead of overriding this method.
     * If you do need to override this method, call the superclass version.
     *
     * @param canvas The Canvas to which the View is rendered.
     */
    @CallSuper
    public void draw(Canvas canvas) {
        final int privateFlags = mPrivateFlags;
        final boolean dirtyOpaque = (privateFlags & PFLAG_DIRTY_MASK) == PFLAG_DIRTY_OPAQUE &&
                (mAttachInfo == null || !mAttachInfo.mIgnoreDirtyState);
        mPrivateFlags = (privateFlags & ~PFLAG_DIRTY_MASK) | PFLAG_DRAWN;

        /*
         * Draw traversal performs several drawing steps which must be executed
         * in the appropriate order:
         *
         *      1. Draw the background
         *      2. If necessary, save the canvas' layers to prepare for fading
         *      3. Draw view's content
         *      4. Draw children
         *      5. If necessary, draw the fading edges and restore layers
         *      6. Draw decorations (scrollbars for instance)
         */

从注释可以看出整个draw过程分为了6步。源码注释说(”skip step 2 & 5 if possible (common case)”)第2和5步可以跳过,所以我们接下来重点剩余四步。如下:

第一步,对View的背景进行绘制。

可以看见,draw方法通过调运drawBackground(canvas);方法实现了背景绘制。我们来看下这个方法源码,如下

 /**
     * Draws the background onto the specified canvas.
     *
     * @param canvas Canvas on which to draw the background
     */
    private void drawBackground(Canvas canvas) {
        final Drawable background = mBackground;
        if (background == null) {
            return;
        }

        setBackgroundBounds();

        // Attempt to use a display list if requested.
        if (canvas.isHardwareAccelerated() && mAttachInfo != null
                && mAttachInfo.mThreadedRenderer != null) {
            mBackgroundRenderNode = getDrawableRenderNode(background, mBackgroundRenderNode);

            final RenderNode renderNode = mBackgroundRenderNode;
            if (renderNode != null && renderNode.isValid()) {
                setBackgroundRenderNodeProperties(renderNode);
                ((DisplayListCanvas) canvas).drawRenderNode(renderNode);
                return;
            }
        }

        final int scrollX = mScrollX;
        final int scrollY = mScrollY;
        if ((scrollX | scrollY) == 0) {
            background.draw(canvas);
        } else {
            canvas.translate(scrollX, scrollY);
            background.draw(canvas);
            canvas.translate(-scrollX, -scrollY);
        }
    }

第三步,对View的内容进行绘制。

可以看到,这里去调用了一下View的onDraw()方法,所以我们看下View的onDraw方法(ViewGroup也没有重写该方法),如下:

 /**
     * Implement this to do your drawing.
     *
     * @param canvas the canvas on which the background will be drawn
     */
    protected void onDraw(Canvas canvas) {
    }

这是一个空方法。因为每个View的内容部分是各不相同的,所以需要由子类去实现具体逻辑。

第四步,对当前View的所有子View进行绘制,如果当前的View没有子View就不需要进行绘制。

我们来看下View的draw方法中的dispatchDraw(canvas);方法源码,可以看见如下:

/**
     * Called by draw to draw the child views. This may be overridden
     * by derived classes to gain control just before its children are drawn
     * (but after its own view has been drawn).
     * @param canvas the canvas on which to draw the view
     */
    protected void dispatchDraw(Canvas canvas) {

    }

View的dispatchDraw()方法是一个空方法,而且注释说明了如果View包含子类需要重写他,所以我们有必要看下ViewGroup的dispatchDraw方法源码(这也就是刚刚说的对当前View的所有子View进行绘制,如果当前的View没有子View就不需要进行绘制的原因,因为如果是View调运该方法是空的,而ViewGroup才有实现),如下:

    @Override
    protected void dispatchDraw(Canvas canvas) {
        ......
        final int childrenCount = mChildrenCount;
        final View[] children = mChildren;
        ......
        for (int i = 0; i < childrenCount; i++) {
            ......
            if ((child.mViewFlags & VISIBILITY_MASK) == VISIBLE || child.getAnimation() != null) {
                more |= drawChild(canvas, child, drawingTime);
            }
        }
        ......
        // Draw any disappearing views that have animations
        if (mDisappearingChildren != null) {
            ......
            for (int i = disappearingCount; i >= 0; i--) {
                ......
                more |= drawChild(canvas, child, drawingTime);
            }
        }
        ......
    }

可以看见,ViewGroup确实重写了View的dispatchDraw()方法,该方法内部会遍历每个子View,然后调用drawChild()方法,我们可以看下ViewGroup的drawChild方法,如下

/**
     * Draw one child of this View Group. This method is responsible for getting
     * the canvas in the right state. This includes clipping, translating so
     * that the child's scrolled origin is at 0, 0, and applying any animation
     * transformations.
     *
     * @param canvas The canvas on which to draw the child
     * @param child Who to draw
     * @param drawingTime The time at which draw is occurring
     * @return True if an invalidate() was issued
     */
    protected boolean drawChild(Canvas canvas, View child, long drawingTime) {
        return child.draw(canvas, this, drawingTime);
    }

可以看见drawChild()方法调运了子View的draw()方法。所以说ViewGroup类已经为我们重写了dispatchDraw()的功能实现,我们一般不需要重写该方法,但可以重载父类函数实现具体的功能。

第六步,对View的滚动条进行绘制。

 /**
     * Draw any foreground content for this view.
     *
     * <p>Foreground content may consist of scroll bars, a {@link #setForeground foreground}
     * drawable or other view-specific decorations. The foreground is drawn on top of the
     * primary view content.</p>
     *
     * @param canvas canvas to draw into
     */
    public void onDrawForeground(Canvas canvas) {
        onDrawScrollIndicators(canvas);
        onDrawScrollBars(canvas);

        final Drawable foreground = mForegroundInfo != null ? mForegroundInfo.mDrawable : null;
        if (foreground != null) {
            if (mForegroundInfo.mBoundsChanged) {
                mForegroundInfo.mBoundsChanged = false;
                final Rect selfBounds = mForegroundInfo.mSelfBounds;
                final Rect overlayBounds = mForegroundInfo.mOverlayBounds;

                if (mForegroundInfo.mInsidePadding) {
                    selfBounds.set(0, 0, getWidth(), getHeight());
                } else {
                    selfBounds.set(getPaddingLeft(), getPaddingTop(),
                            getWidth() - getPaddingRight(), getHeight() - getPaddingBottom());
                }

                final int ld = getLayoutDirection();
                Gravity.apply(mForegroundInfo.mGravity, foreground.getIntrinsicWidth(),
                        foreground.getIntrinsicHeight(), selfBounds, overlayBounds, ld);
                foreground.setBounds(overlayBounds);
            }

            foreground.draw(canvas);
        }
    }


到此,View的draw绘制部分源码分析完毕,我们接下来进行一些总结。

可以看见,绘制过程就是把View对象绘制到屏幕上,整个draw过程需要注意如下细节:

  • 如果该View是一个ViewGroup,则需要递归绘制其所包含的所有子View。

  • View默认不会绘制任何内容,真正的绘制都需要自己在子类中实现。

  • View的绘制是借助onDraw方法传入的Canvas类来进行的。

  • 区分View动画和ViewGroup布局动画,前者指的是View自身的动画,可以通过setAnimation添加,后者是专门针对ViewGroup显示内部子视图时设置的动画,可以在xml布局文件中对ViewGroup设置layoutAnimation属性(譬如对LinearLayout设置子View在显示时出现逐行、随机、下等显示等不同动画效果)。

  • 在获取画布剪切区(每个View的draw中传入的Canvas)时会自动处理掉padding,子View获取Canvas不用关注这些逻辑,只用关心如何绘制即可。

  • 默认情况下子View的ViewGroup.drawChild绘制顺序和子View被添加的顺序一致,但是你也可以重载ViewGroup.getChildDrawingOrder()方法提供不同顺序。


4. 总结

大致看下来绘制流程就是measure-layout-draw,如果是viewGroup则会递归调用child的measure/layout/draw方法。

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